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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 30-33

Community Acquired Pneumonia Associated Fatal Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Syndrome

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Narayana Multispeciality Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 MBBS Student, AIIMS, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Arun Agarwal
Senior Consultant and Head, Department of Internal Medicine, Narayana Multispeciality Hospital, A-235, Shivanand Marg, Malviya Nagar, Jaipur 302017, Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jacp.jacp_10_17

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The burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requiring hospitalization among adults is substantial and is a leading infectious cause of hospitalization and death. Severe CAP may rarely get complicated with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The term hemophagocytosis refers to the pathologic finding of activated macrophages engulfing erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, or their precursor cells in the bone marrow, liver, or lymph nodes; this being characteristic for hemophagocytic syndrome. HLH can be primary or secondary and has a high mortality if left untreated. We report a case of severe CAP with secondary HLH in a 26-year-old male, who presented with fever, pancytopenia, jaundice, and pneumonia due to polymicrobial infection. This case report is presented to enlighten clinicians about the clinical entity of HLH and to suspect and recognize this rare and fatal disease.

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